Prehistoric Continents Discovered Off India And Brazil

icutre of Indian Ocean Vintage Map

Indian Ocean Vintage Map

On March 3, 2013, researchers found evidence of a landmass estimated to have existed between 2,000 and 85 million years ago.  The fragments of an ancient continent are buried beneath the floor of the Indian Ocean.

May 8, 2013, researchers announced that they found traces of a long-lost island/continent located at a high-rising mass of ocean floor about 930 miles offshore of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

A picture of a South American Vintage Map

South American Vintage Map

Surfacing Our Past

The continents that we live upon today are the archeological remnants of ancient continents, and are merely terrestrial artifacts formed from the fragments of the breakup of older supercontinents, long extinct.

Over the past 500 million years, there have been five different sets of continents, called supercontinents. Sometime in the future, there will be a sixth supercontinent very different from what we know today. All prehistoric continents began as one massive landmass, or “supercontinent.”

Supercontinent #1 – Vaalbara

The earliest known supercontinent was Vaalbara. Vaalbara is believed to have formed about 3,600 million years ago (3.1 billion years ago [3.1 GA]). The basic structure of Vaalbara consisted of eastern South African rocks that match the same rocks found today in the northwest section of Western Australia.

Supercontinent #2 – Kenorland

After Vaalbara, the supercontinent Kenorland was formed around 2.7 billion years ago. Kenorland formed what we know as today’s North America, Greenland, Scandinavia, Western Australia, and the Baltic regions.

Supercontinent #3 – Columbia

After Kenorland, the supercontinent Columbia formed around 2.0–1.8 billion years ago and broke apart about 1.5–1.3 billion years ago[i]. Columbia was small, about 12,900 kilometers (8,000 miles) from North to South, and about 4,800 km (3,000 miles) across its broadest stretch. Fossil records show that the east coast of India was attached to Western North America during this time, and Southern Australia was pushed up against Western Canada. Most of South America was positioned where the western edge of modern-day Brazil lined up with Eastern North America, extending to the southern edge of Scandinavia. The Amazon region in South America first appeared on Columbia[ii].

Supercontinent #4 – Rodinia

A picture of a dinosaur, which once roamed the Earth as humans do today.

The dinosaur disappeared after Rodinia.

After Columbia, the supercontinent Rodinia formed about 1.1 billion years ago, and broke up roughly 750 million years ago. This was a supercontinent that contained most of our present day landmasses, but geologic records show these continents were in an upside down world. Our present day continents were formed from the fragments of the breakup of Rodinia. 

Supercontinent #5 – Pangaea

Some 200 million years later, the broken pieces of Rodinia reconnected as Pangaea, and this was after the extinction that killed the dinosaurs.

Most of Rodinia was concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere, but the North and South poles had shifted at this time, pointing into the Sun. Pangaea was wrapped around the equator like a planetary belt. North America formed the core of Pangaea, called Laurentia, which was at the South Pole[iii].

The southeastern United States was wedged between Africa and South America. Australia, India, and Antarctica formed the largest landmass, called Gondwana, north of Laurentia.

Siberia, Russia was located just south of the equator between Gondwana and Laurentia, and Scandinavia, Europe, European Russia, and much of what is today’s Asia were in fragments along the north coast of Gondwana.

Supercontinent #6 – ????


[i] Zhao, Guochun; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, Simon A.; Sun, M. (2002). “Review of global 2.1–1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinent”. Earth-Science Reviews 59: 125–162.

[ii] Bispo-Santos, Franklin; Manoel S. D’Agrella-Filho; Igor I.G. Pacca; Liliane Janikian; Ricardo I.F. Trindade; Sten-Ake Elming; Jesué A. Silva; Márcia A.S. Barros; Francisco E.C. Pinho (June 2008). Columbia revisited: Paleomagnetic results from the 1790 Ma colider volcanics (SW Amazonian Craton, Brazil) Precambrian Research, v. 164, p. 40-49-162.

[iii] University of Washington. Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. 2012.

The NOT Apocalypse

Apocalyptic predictions are a blend of religion, science, and prophecy – all products of mankind. Many great prophets, religious scriptures, and scientific evidence point to a future apocalyptic event. But all these “predictions” are generated by humans, and NO HUMAN has the power to outsmart Mother Nature. No human can predict when the cosmos is going to react in a way that creates an extinction on Earth. We know that there will be one – we just don’t know when.

Old scrolls and ancient books where mankind has tried to predict an apocalypse since the beginning of mankind.

Scrolls and ancient writings predicting an apocalypse

The Science Behind An Apocalypse

The scars of cosmic debris found on the Earth’s crust provide some of the best evidence of past apocalyptic events. There is confirmation that multiple impacts of concern occurred in peculiar phases and in unusual patterns around the planet. According to geologic records, when cosmic impacts increased, major extinctions occurred.

These scientific discoveries are exciting because most of the Earth’s history is left to speculation; theories can only be woven into the fabric of time, evolution, changing climates, dinosaurs, and extinctions. Humans want to know their fate, yet no human being is capable of predicting it.

What Causes An Extinction?

Since life began on Earth, several mass extinctions have taken place. Over 97 percent of all the species that ever lived are now extinct. Extinctions are caused by both major Earth changes, like a polar shift, and by catastrophic extraterrestrial events, like the impact from a comet, meteor, or incoming asteroid.  Both result in physical conditions that affect the entire planet.

Five Past Extinctions

A picture of a dinosuar, which once roamed the Earth as humans do today.

Dinosaurs once dominated the Earth as humans do today

There have been five major extinctions throughout Earth’s history – that we know of. Extinctions are an inevitable part of a natural Earth cycle, yet they are major events that are based mostly on guesswork. The good news: every past extinction always re-seeds new and more evolved life forms, from simple-celled ocean life to dinosaurs to mammals to YOU.

Predicting Our Next Extinction

There will be another extinction event on Earth, and the human spirit will evolve, but we cannot predict what new life forms will emerge. The most important message is not to worry about when the next extinction will occur, but how to live life on Earth in the kindest and most loving way possible while we are here.

After We Are Gone

There is no doubt that a more resourceful species will evolve to assist Nature in decomposing the damage that human beings have done to the Earth. New creatures will emerge to break down synthetics and eat away the massive landfills packed with plastics and non-recyclable trash. Life forms will evolve to dissemble the building materials on skyscrapers and nuclear power plants; a new species will emerge to biodegrade the toxic weapons of war and the piles of off-shore drilling rigs and pipes discarded on the ocean floor. Unknown life forms will decompose the miles upon miles of concrete, roads, and steel bridges. The Earth will require millions of years to break down all the waste and destruction humanity has left behind.

In order to pave a more natural path into the future, we MUST begin improving the way we take care of this planet NOW, before we run out of time. How much time do we have to fix the mess we have created? Only the Earth knows.